Monday, November 13, 2017

My PBL- Volcanoes


Contents page.

How do volcanoes form?
What are volcanic rocks?
Good and Bad Effects


This is a report about how volcanoes are formed, what they are and what impact volcanoes have on the world                                       we live in.
How do volcanoes form?
If you want to know how volcanoes are formed you must know the earth is made of four layers. First is the earth's crust which is probably what were standing on right now. Underneath the crust  is the mantle which is where all the magma comes from or you might call it lava. And underneath the mantle is the outer core which is made of hot boiling metal liquid. And underneath that is the inner core which is the center of the earth.

What are volcanic rocks?    


Image result for pumice
Image result for sulphur
Image result for obsidian
Pumice is made with lots of gas bubbles in lava

Sulphur is made out of lots and lots of tiny crystals and yellow bits called sulphur.
Obsidian is called volcanic glass and is made of very thick dried up magma and lava that has cooled really quickly.

Good Effects
Many of Earth’s most valuable resources are found in volcanic rock. These include minerals such as fluorine,sulphur,zinc,copper,lead,tin,uranium,tungsten,silver,mercury, and gold.
Fertile Soil
The richest soil is often found in places with volcanic activity. That is because volcanic rocks is filled with minerals and nutrients that plants need to grow. In Indonesia, for example, farmers can harvest three crops of rice a year in volcanic soil. Farmers planting on volcanic soil harvest much less.
Geothermal Power
Geo means earth and thermal means heat. Geothermal heat is produced in Earth’s core and mantle. It heats the rocks and water deep in the Earth’s crust. People can drill into Earth and use the heated water and steam to produce electricity in power plants.

Bad Effects
Volcanoes provide many benefits, but they can also cause problems.
Unusual weather In 1815, a volcano called Mount Tambora erupted in Indonesia. It was the world's biggest volcanic eruption over a thousand years. In the United States they experienced the coldest summer because the ash blocked out the sunlight and cooled down the earth and changed the hot weather into cold weather. So they experienced what is called the year without a summer

Disrupted air travel
Volcanic eruptions can stop planes from flying.  Ash clouds can be dangerous for airplanes because even the smallest piece can cause the plane engine to stop and the plane to crash.



  1. Ash   pungarehu  -        very tiny pieces of lava that come out of a volcano.
2.  Erupt  puhapuha -  to pour or burst out of a  hole

3. Disrupt  tutū   -       volcanic eruptions
4. Volcanic rock     toka puia     different types of rock that come out of a volcano

            Geothermal power     punahiko ngāwhā    the earth's heat power   or    geo means earth and thermal means heat

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